1 Basic Information
Location: Yanqing District, Beijing
Design Company: China Architecture Design & Research Group
Client: Coordination Bureau for the Beijing International Horticultural Exhibition 2019
Architect in Charge: Cui Kai, Jing Quan, Li Liang
Chief Landscape Architect: Shi Lixiu, Liu Huan
Project Area: 23000㎡
Building Area: 23000㎡
Design Time: 2016.9-2017.5
Construction Time: 2017.8-2019.3
Completion Time: 2019.3
The Chinese Pavilion is located at the end of the landscape gardening axis in Beijing International Horticultural Exhibition. It is one of the most important buildings of the EXPO. The No. 1 gate of the park is located at the south side of it, and the north side is Guirui Lake. The west, Yongning Pavilion and the Chinese Horticultural Exhibition Area at the east. The Chinese pavilion is like a Ruyi in the landscape. It combines the local gardening wisdom, reflects the long-standing Chinese farming civilization, telling the beautiful story of people and nature, and adopts materials and applicable technologies that conform to the local design concept and eventually becomes a green building.
Distant exterior view of the Chinese Pavilion
The site relationship is different from the "back mountain face water" of traditional Chinese architecture. Tourists enter the pavilion from the south side, while the north side is the largest lake in the park. Therefore, the first question is how to deal with this contradictory site relationship. The design considers the plan of the building as a half-ring, forming an entry plaza on the south side; In order to solve the relationship between the building and the water, the middle part of the ground floor is overhead, forming a corridor that runs through the north and south, and people can directly look through it. The original "backwater space" has a wonderful connection with water. Another ingenious aspect of the site design is that – design with the north-south height difference, people can be directly outside from different elevations. The elevation of the site within the red line is between 484.80-483.80, and the south part is higher than the north part. The elevation of the bank of the lake in the north is 478.00, which is about 6 meters high. According to the design of the single streamline of the exhibition hall, combined with the basement setting, the consideration of the amount of excavation is reduced. From the south side of the red line to the main entrance of the building, the elevation of the ground is gradually raised by 4 meters, and the elevation of the main entrance (±0.000) is 488.30. The exit level of the north side of the basement is -6.000, and the absolute elevation is 482.30, thus realizing the site design strategy of "entrance and exit in different elevation."
The main entrance of Chinese Pavilion
Close exterior view of the Chinese Pavilion
Axon and the circulation of the Chinese Pavilion
The roof structure of the Chinese Pavilion
During the EXPO, visitors enter the Chinese Pavilion via the south plaza. Visitors need to walk a gentle slope of nearly 100m long and 4% slope because of the height difference between the main entrance elevation (absolute elevation is 488.30) and the south road elevation (484.40). It meets the need of accessible design and makes the visitors' feeling comfortable. After the gentle slope, people come to the open semi-enclosed front plaza, surrounded by terraces of vegetation. At the center of the plaza is a circular water courtyard. The water in the sink overflows and falls to the basement through the tile roof to form a spectacular water curtain.
The main entrance plaza on the south
Partial view of the main entrance plaza on the south
The semi-enclosed open front plaza that is surrounded by green terraces
The green terraces complement with the red roof system
Details of the terrace
Entering the building, the first stop is the preface hall, the green cement wall, the soft film ceiling with green leaves and the green grille, bringing tourists into a green forest.
The preface hall with the green cement wall, the soft film ceiling with green leaves and the green grille
Passing through the hall and entering the west side of the exhibition hall, it is a green world. Although buried in the earth, the top lighting hole is designed to introduce natural light. The slope rises slowly and the space becomes brighter and brighter. The glass and ETFE membranes give people a feeling of openness. To the east, visitors will get through the exhibition hall to reach the central viewing platform. This is the most spacious space of the building. People can overlook Yongning Pavilion, Guirui Theater and the International Pavilion.
The ramps lead visitors from 1F to 2F
The viewing platform on the 2F
The exhibition space made of glass and ETFE membrane on the second floor
The viewing platform on the second floor, visitors can see Yongning Pavilion on the northwest, Guirui Theatre and International Pavilion on the northeast
Viewing the surroundings from the interior space
From the viewing platform to the east side exhibition hall, the space form is mirrored with the west side exhibition hall. From the east side exhibition hall, visitors can take escalator to enter the underground exhibition hall. In the sinking water yard, watching the water fall from the tile roof. After the visiting, people can exit from the north side to reach the lake conveniently.
The round sunken courtyard at the center of the front plaza, the water drops from the roof, creating a water screen
According to the climatic conditions of light, precipitation, ventilation and temperature in Yanqing, the design chooses appropriate green technology: First, it has obvious practical effects, and saving operating cost refers to covering soil, tunnel wind, strengthening indoor natural ventilation, etc. Second, the functional and high-display technology refers to photovoltaic systems, rainwater utilization, etc. Yanqing is the most abundant area of solar energy resources in Beijing. In addition to meeting the basic requirements of lighting, the Chinese Pavilion also considers the demand for light in indoor plants. The expanded arcuate plane provides plenty of light. The southward slope is gentler and more conducive to light. The Chinese Pavilion adopts a rainwater collection and utilization system. The design of the slope roof is conducive to the natural flow of rainwater along the roof. After the rainwater enters the drainage ditch, it is discharged into the terraced fields, and is partially used for terraced irrigation and waterscape use. The winter in Yanqing is relatively cold, and the first floor exhibition hall is buried in the soil, which can reduce the heat transfer coefficient of the envelope structure and achieve passive energy conservation. The tunnel windfall temperature system exchanges heat with the soil through the tunnel (or underground buried pipe). In summer, the soil absorbs the heat of the outdoor air passing through the tunnel to cool it. In winter, the soil releases heat through the outdoor air passing through the tunnel to achieve the effect of preheating. The installation of tunnel winds provides a new style for the pavilions with higher frequency of use, which can effectively reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning in the building.
Night view of the Chinese Pavilion
Underground floor plan